Hallmark of Cancer Cell, Changes in cancer cells leading to cancer
How does cancer occurs?


Cancer is uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells in any part of the body. Neoplasm or tumor are used variably to describe any swelling or new growth. Benign growths don’t have potential to spread to other organs or parts of the body while malignancy or malignant growths have uncontrolled proliferation and metastatic potential.

Transformation is multistep process with genetic alterations by which normal cells acquire malignant potential, uncontrolled proliferation capacity and capacity to spread to other parts of the body (metastasis)


Lifestyle factors

  • Tobacco consumption is responsible for 25% of preventable cancer related deaths.
  • Alcohol increase risk of cancer with increase in amount of drinking.
  • Obesity is associated with 15-20% of cancer related deaths.
  • Unhealthy Diet- processed meats, red meats, excessive salt, excessive sugar and fat.


Environmental Factors

  • Air pollution is increasing cases of cancer.
  • Radiation exposure from natural and artificial sources like ionizing radiation, Ultraviolet ray
  • Chemical Carcinogens like asbestos, arsenic, teflon
  • Infections like human papilloma virus, hepatitis, H. pylori, HIV


Non Modifiable Factors

  • Age >50 years : 60 % of cases and 70% of cancer related mortality occurs in this age group
  • Gender: certain cancers are more common in females and others in male.
  • Hormonal exposure: like estrogen excess for breast & endometrium cancer
  • Certain conditions like inflammatory bowel disease


Genetic Factors

  • BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes mutation: increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers.
  • APC gene mutation: increase the risk of colon and rectum cancers.
  • p53 mutation: increase the risk of several cancers.
  • Genetic testing can identify people who have these mutations and help them make informed decisions about prevention and treatment options.

  • Urinary Bladder Cancer

    Urinary Bladder Cancer  The urinary bladder is a part of our urinary system that stores urine before we urinate. It is a hollow, muscular organ that can stretch and shrink

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  • Uterus Cancer

    Uterus (Endometrium) Cancer Uterus is an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ of the female reproductive system, located between the bladder and the rectum. Its function is to implant and nourish the

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  • Prostate Cancer

    Prostate Cancer Prostate gland is part of the male reproductive system. It is walnut shaped organ situated directly below the urinary bladder. Prostate surrounds the urethra which is passage for

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  • Oral Cancer

    Oral Cancer The oral cavity, also known as the mouth, is the first part of the digestive system. It parts includes lips, alveolus, tongue & floor of mouth, palate, buccal

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  • Lung Cancer

    Lung Cancer Lungs are the breathing organs of body and mutated cells proliferation in lungs leads to lung cancer.Lung cancer is most common cause of cancer related mortality worldwideIn India,

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  • Liver Cancer

    Liver Cancer Liver is one of the largest and essential organ of body. Food nutrients absorbed from intestine reaches liver via portal blood circulation where they are metabolized and essential

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  • Pancreas Cancer

    Pancreas Cancer The pancreas is a gland that is shaped like a thin pear lying on its side. The wider end of the pancreas is called the head, the middle

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  • Cervix Cancer

    Cervix Cancer Cervix is lower part of uterus, and it connects uterus with vagina. Cervix or cervical cancer arises in the cell linings of cervix.Third most common and second most

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  • Ovary Cancer

    Ovary Cancer Ovarian cancer is the cancer which arise from reproductive organs of female. Ovaries are female organs of reproduction, two in number and situated on either sides of uterus.

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  • Breast Cancer

    Breast Cancer Breast are milk producing specialized glands in women. Lymph vessels carry a clear fluid called lymph into the small bean-shaped structures which contain immune cells called lymph nodes.

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  • Gallbladder Cancer

    Gallbladder Cancer Gall bladder is pear shaped organ situated below liver. It stores the bile produced in liver and release it in intestine through bile duct at time of food

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  • Esophagus Cancer

    Esophagus Cancer Esophagus, also called as food pipe is a hollow muscular tube that connect throat to the stomach. It is around 20-25 cm long and 2-3 cm wide. Foods

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