Hallmark of Cancer Cell, Changes in cancer cells leading to cancer
How does cancer occurs?

Cancer

Cancer is uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells in any part of the body. Neoplasm or tumor are used variably to describe any swelling or new growth. Benign growths don’t have potential to spread to other organs or parts of the body while malignancy or malignant growths have uncontrolled proliferation and metastatic potential.

Transformation is multistep process with genetic alterations by which normal cells acquire malignant potential, uncontrolled proliferation capacity and capacity to spread to other parts of the body (metastasis)

01.

Lifestyle factors

  • Tobacco consumption is responsible for 25% of preventable cancer related deaths.
  • Alcohol increase risk of cancer with increase in amount of drinking.
  • Obesity is associated with 15-20% of cancer related deaths.
  • Unhealthy Diet- processed meats, red meats, excessive salt, excessive sugar and fat.

02.

Environmental Factors

  • Air pollution is increasing cases of cancer.
  • Radiation exposure from natural and artificial sources like ionizing radiation, Ultraviolet ray
  • Chemical Carcinogens like asbestos, arsenic, teflon
  • Infections like human papilloma virus, hepatitis, H. pylori, HIV

03.

Non Modifiable Factors

  • Age >50 years : 60 % of cases and 70% of cancer related mortality occurs in this age group
  • Gender: certain cancers are more common in females and others in male.
  • Hormonal exposure: like estrogen excess for breast & endometrium cancer
  • Certain conditions like inflammatory bowel disease

04.

Genetic Factors

  • BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes mutation: increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers.
  • APC gene mutation: increase the risk of colon and rectum cancers.
  • p53 mutation: increase the risk of several cancers.
  • Genetic testing can identify people who have these mutations and help them make informed decisions about prevention and treatment options.

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