Oral Cancer

Cancer of Oral cavity

The oral cavity, also known as the mouth, is the first part of the digestive system. It parts includes lips, alveolus, tongue & floor of mouth, palate, buccal mucosa (cheeks). The oral cavity is connected to the pharynx, which leads to the esophagus (foodpipe).

  • India has almost 1/3rd of cases of oral cavity in world.
  • Oral cancer accounts for approx. 10.3% of all cancers in India
  • Most common cancer in Indian males and 4th most common in Indian females.
  • 3rd most common cause of cancer related deaths in India.
Risk Factors
  • Tobacco in any form smoking or smokeless in the form of jarda, ghutka etc.
  • Betel nut with or without paan
  • Alcohol
  • sharp teeth or dentures causing constant irritation
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) Infection
  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Leukoplakia – a condition characterized by a whitish patch that develops inside the mouth or throat.
  • Erythroplakia – a condition characterized by a red, raised patch that develops inside the mouth.
  • Excessive sun exposure, which, like elsewhere on the body, can cause cancer on the lip


Alarmimg Signs of Oral Cancer
  • An ulcer or sore that does not heal or bleed on touch

  • a white or red patch on the gums, tongue, or lining of mouth

  • a lump on the lip or in the mouth or throat

  • unusual bleeding, pain, or numbness in the mouth area

  • Restriction in opening mouth- submucosal fibrosis

  • Unusual bleeding from nose

  • Swelling of the jaw

  • pain in the ear

  • change in voice

  • a chronic sore throat

  • a feeling as if something is caught in the throat

  • pain or difficulty in swallowing or chewing

  • Loosening of tooth or ill-fitting of denture

  • Physical examination of oral cavity and entire body, including health habits and past illnesses and treatments
  • Endoscopy is an examination of areas of the throat, pharynx and larynx with a thin, lighted tube
  • Biopsy is the removal of tissue samples to look for signs of cancer
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) scans of face/ neck and distant sites chest; abdomen produce images of the size and location of tumors and metastases, or places where tumors have spread.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): uses radio wave pulses to make images of spatial variations in the absorption and emission of energy between healthy tissue and tumors.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan uses radioactive sugar molecules injected intravenously. Cancer cells absorb sugar more quickly than normal cells, so they “light up” on the scan.

Surgery: When surgery is the main option for cure, the whole tumour and the lymph nodes are removed. Surgery is commonly used to remove cancer for all stages of cancer of the oral cavity. Reconstructive surgery restores function or improves the appearance of parts of the body. It may include dental implants, skin graft, local flap or free flap. 

  • Wide Excision: Depending on the afflicted area Wide Excision may include a surrounding structure also. For e.g., in some cases, a rim or segment of the jaw bone may be removed so that there is no compromise on getting a microscopic clean margin.
    While the Oncosurgeon is totally focused on getting the tumour out, he/ she would have a plan for reconstruction which is often discussed with a plastic surgeon and the patient, in advance. Loss of tissue expected and the plan for reconstruction should discussed with Surgical Oncologist and reconstructive surgeon.
  • Neck Lymph Node Dissection – Head & Neck Cancers generally spread to neck glands. Even if the neck glands are not involved, these might have to be removed for control of cancer. Selective or modified neck lymph node dissection is done so that the appearance and shoulder function are well preserved.

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Integration of Multimodality Treatment
  • Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells.

  • Chemotherapy uses drugs taken by mouth or injections through a vein or muscle to stop the growth of cancer cells. The way that chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of cancer being treated. Chemotherapy can be one or a combination of drugs.

  • Targetted Therapy: have important role in advance/ metastatic disease. where medicine is given for specific receptors (targets) of cancer
  • Immunotherapy: Acts with immune check points of cells and its role is emerging in colorectal cancer in specific patients.
Rehabilitation for Oral cancer Treatment

Rehabilitation may vary from person-to-person depending on the type of oral cancer treatment, and the location and extent of the cancer

Dietary counselling: many patients recovering from oral cancer surgery have difficulty eating, so it is often recommended that they eat small meals consisting of soft, moist foods.

Surgery: some patients may benefit from reconstructive or plastic surgery to restore the bones or tissues of the mouth, returning a more normal appearance.

Prosthesis: if reconstructive or plastic surgery is not an option, patients may benefit from dental or facial-part prosthesis to restore a more normal appearance. Special training may be needed to learn to use a prosthetic device.

Speech therapy: if a patient experiences difficulty in speaking following oral cancer treatment, speech therapy may help the patient relearn the process.


Got some questions

Colon cancer can start anywhere in the colon, which is about 5 feet long and absorbs water from the stool. Rectal cancer begins in the rectum, which is the last 12 cm (about 5 inches) of the large intestine. This is where the body defecates until you have a bowel movement. Contact Cancer Surgery clinic Arogyam Care at Gurugram, Delhi NCR or book online appointment for colon and rectal cancer treatment in Gurgaon.
  • If all relavant examination and investigations has been done than plan of treatment is finalized with colon cancer surgeon
  • After deciding surgical procedure cost estimate can be taken from billing department or hospital. Clinic or hospital department coordinator will assist in case any help required. +918750587489,
Best Doctor for Rectal Cancer in Gurgaon says for rectal cancer, the overall 5-year survival rate for people is 67%. If the cancer is diagnosed locally, the survival rate is 89%. If the cancer has spread to surrounding tissues or organs and / or regional lymph nodes, the 5-year survival rate is 72%
It is 10 times more likely to cause stomach cancer than rectal cancer, where it returns after treatment has begun. Stomach cancer has about a 20 percent risk of local recurrence, versus about 2 percent with colon cancer. Contact Dr Kaushal Yadav for Cancer Surgery & for colon and rectal cancer treatment in Gurgaon, Delhi-NCR, India

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