Larynx Cancer

Larynx Cancer illustration

Larynx (voice box) is part of the throat situated between base of tongue and trachea (windpipe) that helps you breathe and speak. It contains the vocal cords, which vibrate and make sound when air passes through them. There are three parts of the larynx:

  1. Supraglottis: upper portion of the larynx. It has epiglottis, cartilages, and false vocal cords It functions to protect the airway during swallowing by closing off the entrance to the trachea with the help of the epiglottis.
  2. Glottis: middle portion of the larynx. It has vocal cords which vibrate to produce sound.
  3. Subglottis: lower part of the larynx. It extends down to the trachea.



Laryngeal cancer can develop in any part of the larynx, but it usually starts in the cells that line the inside of the larynx. There are different types of laryngeal cancer, depending on which part of the larynx is affected:

  •  Supraglottic cancer: This affects the upper part of the larynx, above the vocal cords. It accounts for about 35% of laryngeal cancers.
  • Glottic cancer: This affects the vocal cords themselves. It accounts for about 60% of laryngeal cancers.
  • Subglottic cancer: This affects the lower part of the larynx, below the vocal cords. It accounts for about 5% of laryngeal cancers.
Risk Factors
  • Tobacco:  Prolonged use of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco) 
  • Alcohol
  • Age: more common in individuals > 50 years and men are more likely to develop this cancer than women.
  • HPV Infection: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been linked to some cases of larynx cancer.
  • Occupational Exposure: Long-term exposure to certain substances, such as asbestos, wood dust, and paint fumes, in specific work environments may increase the risk of developing larynx cancer.
Alarmimg Signs of Colon Cancer
  • A change in your voice, such as sounding hoarse or not speaking clearly

  • Pain or difficulty when swallowing

  • A lump or swelling in your neck

  • A long-lasting cough

  • A persistent sore throat or ear pain

  • In severe cases, difficulty breathing or coughing up blood


  • Laryngoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera is inserted through the nose or mouth to visualize the larynx and collect tissue samples for biopsy.

  • Biopsy:** The removal of a small sample of tissue from the affected area for laboratory examination to determine if cancer cells are present.
  • CT scans/ MRI/ PET scans : helps in determining the extent and stage of cancer
  • Radiation Therapy: High-energy beams are used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation therapy is main therapy because it preserve the oragn

                                                    –  In early stages when cancer is limited to larynx

                                                     – not invaded the cartilages 

                                                     – when larynx is having function


  • Chemotherapy: is given along with radiation except in very early stage. Chemotehrapy+ Radiation therapy is curative option in ealy stages. In metastatic disease it is main palliative treatment.
  • Targeted Therapy: drugs that target specific features of cancer cells, such as proteins or genes. It may be used alone or in combination with other treatments
  • Immunotherapy
  • Surgery
Surgery for Larynx Cancer:
  • Laser surgery through the mouth: This is also called transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) or transoral resection of the larynx (TORL). The surgeon uses a thin tube with a light and a camera (endoscope) to see inside your throat. They use a laser beam to cut out the tumor and some surrounding tissue. This surgery may be used for early-stage cancers that are confined to one part of the larynx.
  • Partial laryngectomy: This removes part of the larynx, such as one vocal cord or half of the voice box. The surgeon makes a cut in your neck to access the larynx. You may still be able to speak after this surgery, but your voice may be hoarse or weak. You may also need a temporary hole in your neck (tracheostomy) to help you breathe while your larynx heals.
  • Total laryngectomy: This removes the entire larynx and separates windpipe. Trachea (windpipe) is permanently attached to neck skin- tracheostomy. Voice is lost in this procedure which requires rehabilitation.
  • Lymph node removal:  removes lymph nodes stations in neck that may be affected by cancer. It is done along with the main surgery.  Sometimes it is done as standalone procedure when there is recurrence involving only neck lymph nodes.
  • Reconstructive Surgery: After removing part or all of the larynx, reconstructive surgery may be performed to restore some functions, such as swallowing and speech. Techniques for reconstruction may include voice restoration with a tracheoesophageal prosthesis, muscle flaps, or free tissue transfer.

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Surgery for Larynx Cancer in Gurgaon, Delhi NCR, India

The choice of voice rehabilitation method will depend on the patient’s individual needs, preferences, and overall health. It is essential for patients to work closely with a team of healthcare professionals, including speech therapists. Most common methos for voice rehabilitation after larynx cancer surgery as suggested by best head and neck cancer surgeons are:

  • Tracheoesophageal Puncture (TEP) and Voice Prosthesis: This method is commonly used for patients who have undergone a total laryngectomy. During this procedure, a small hole (puncture) is made between the trachea and the esophagus. A one-way valve voice prosthesis is then placed in the puncture, allowing air to pass from the trachea to the esophagus. By blocking the stoma (surgical opening in the neck) and diverting air to the esophagus, patients can generate sound vibrations in the upper esophagus, producing a voice. This technique allows for relatively natural-sounding speech and is often preferred by many patients.
  • Electrolarynx:  An electrolarynx is a handheld electronic device that generates vibrations and sound when placed against the neck. It produces an artificial voice that the patient can shape with their mouth and tongue to create speech. This method is relatively simple and can be used immediately after surgery, but it may also result in speech that sounds less natural.
  • Esophageal Speech: Esophageal speech is another method used after a total laryngectomy. It involves swallowing air into the esophagus and then expelling it to create vibrations that produce speech. This technique requires practice and training with a speech therapist to achieve clear and understandable speech.
  • Speech Therapy: Regardless of the method chosen for voice rehabilitation, speech therapy is essential. A speech therapist can work with the patient to improve articulation, intonation, and overall speech clarity. They can also provide exercises to strengthen the muscles used in speech production and improve swallowing and communication skills.



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Colon cancer can start anywhere in the colon, which is about 5 feet long and absorbs water from the stool. Rectal cancer begins in the rectum, which is the last 12 cm (about 5 inches) of the large intestine. This is where the body defecates until you have a bowel movement. Contact Cancer Surgery clinic Arogyam Care at Gurugram, Delhi NCR or book online appointment for colon and rectal cancer treatment in Gurgaon.
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